25.11
Anniversary of MEPHI
Moscow Engineering Physics Institute celebrated anniversary.

It was

11.11
8 international Conference "Ecology and resource saving technologies"
LLC "Technoanalytdevice" awarded a diploma "For innovations in the field of
Earlier

Amptek Mini-X X-Ray Tube of Mn secondary target to mimic 55Fe source

You can do so but the test results are not directly equivalent. The plots below show spectra taken using the same detector and electronics (in this case an X-123-FastSDD) with the same system configuration. Data were taken using a 55Fe isotopic source and using an X-ray tube to excite a pure Mn target. The FWHM energy resolution is the same in all three cases, 131.5 eV. But many other characteristics are quite different: the log plot shows that the peak to background value is dramatically worse with the X-ray tube, it shows many additional spectral lines, and even the linear plot shows a different ratio for the Mn Kα and Kβ lines.

Why are the results different with a source and a tube?

o The K/Kratio is different due to self-attenuation. The X-rays from the tube penetrate fairly deeply into the Mn target; the K X-rays have a sorter attenuation length so fewer exit the target, reducing the K/K ratio. The isotopic material is located closer to the surface.

o The peak to background ratio is different because the X-ray tube produces a bremsstrahlung continuum which is scattered from the target. The intensity of the scattered continuum is much larger than the background response of the detector. It will also be a strong function of the tube’s kV setting, any filter on the tube, the geometry, etc.

o The additional characteristic X-ray lines arise from two sources. First, the target is nominally 99.9% pure Mn which means the impurities total 1000 ppm. An XRF system has a detection limit of 10 ppm so clearly detects impurities. Second, the tube includes collimators, filters, and shielding, and each of these contributes X-ray lines. It is worth noting that even isotopic sources may contain impurities which are detectable (we have seen Cr and Ti in 55Fe sources).

o In this example the resolution was the same but this is not always the case! X-ray tubes are commonly found to produce interference. The high voltage power supply of the tube can couple into sensitive circuits in the spectrometer and thus degrade resolution. Tube power supplies often vibrate, producing ultrasonic acoustic signals, and the detectors (which are somewhat microphonic) detect this noise.

An X-ray tube may be used to characterize an X-ray detector or spectrometer but the results may be different from the results obtained using a 55Fe isotopic source. Amptek uses the 55Fe source, which better characterizes the detector since it makes a cleaner signal. The ISO standards for measuring spectrometer recommend use of 55Fe sources. An 55Fe source is the proper, definitive standard. 

Innovative Production

Innovative production is the production building on the use of new knowledge (or new use of knowledge) implemented in technology, know-how, new combinations of production factors, organization and production management structure, which allows deriving additional financial return and a variety of competitive edges.

It is knowledge, rather than work, that serves as a value driver. This leads to replacement of the "political labor economy" paradigm: the labor theory of value gives way to the theory of "knowledge value". As the theory author T. Sakai highlights, "...We are entering a new stage of civilization where the driving force is knowledge value. As a result, the economy turns into a system functioning on the basis of knowledge exchange and mutual evaluation.

The search of solvable market demand niches and investors interested in financing technology improvements, development and implementation of research and production projects for promotion of science-based high-tech products to the new target markets. The recent research of western scientists reveals a rapid growth in value of companies' intellectual property pools as compared with their material resources and financial capital. Basically, this ratio varies between 5:6 and 6:1. Also, it was figured that a dollar invested in research and development returns an eight-time higher value than a dollar invested in technology. Therefore, rising knowledge intensity of contemporary production is increasingly bringing to the front human creative potential, proficiency and erudition.